In this article, you will know the basic concept of quantum computing, its works and what are cosmic rays? And how they are affecting quantum computing? It is considered that they are a greater threat to quantum computing. You have heard the word quantum many times. Especially while studying physics, you may often come across this. What is quantum or quantum mechanics? Simply, the answer is, it is firstly, the study of the physical properties of nature at a very small level.
What is the Difference between Quantum Computing and Cosmic Rays?
1. Quantum Computing
As apparent from the name, it is something in which computing will be done at a very fast speed. It is because of the use of quantum technology. And yes, this is what actually happening in quantum computers. They work very fast as compared to classical computers. Classical computers can take information in form of 1 or 0 called bits but in quantum computing computers can take input as 1 and 0 at the same time or their combination as well. It is called quantum bits or qubits. Using qubits quantum computers increases the working abilities of the machine, while the use of normal bits makes them relatively slow as their input method is restricted.
2. Cosmic Rays
Cosmic rays consist of protons and atomic nuclei. They don’t have electrons. 90 per cent of the composition consists of protons. The energy of these protons is very high. They travel at the speed of light. The main source of cosmic is the sun. There are many secondary particles that are produced by cosmic rays. When these rays get involved with the earth, most of the secondary produced particles are absorbed by the magneto and heliosphere of the atmosphere of the earth. Their energy ranges from 10^9 to 10^20. Cosmic were invented by victor Hess in 1912 during the balloon experiment. He won the noble prize for this invention.
What are the main problems of quantum computing?
Quantum computers are very expensive. You cannot afford it for small businesses. Their price ranges from 10k dollars to 10billon dollars.
Supercomputers require a very good cooling system. As their processing power is very high, they need to be cooled down to handle the temperature.
If quantum computers become more public and cheaper, there is a threat that they can breach all of the security protocols. With the high computing power, they can easily decode the internet security codes
Fundamentals of Quantum Computing
Quantum computing works on the basis of two principles superposition and entanglement.
- Superpositions gives the idea that inputs of a computer can have dual nature also called qubits.
- Entanglement explains that the two inputs that are intermingled with each other cannot be described separately.
Tips for Quantum classical computers
- Contrary to classical computers which use transistors of 1 and 0, quantum computing uses qubits which can be 1 or 0 simultaneously. And with the increase in the quantity of qubits, the computing power increases exponentially.
- The main purpose of quantum computers is to solve complex problems that are not recommended for daily life use. There is no need to increase the memory of quantum computers, rather they need a good cooling system.
- Quantum computing is highly recommended in financial, biological, big data searches, intelligence and military affairs and digital manufacturing.
Are cosmic rays Effects on the Atmosphere, Electronics and Computing?
Cosmic rays are dangerous for the atmosphere as they ionize the nitrogen and oxygen from it. This ionization leads to many other chemical reactions. These rays produce many unstable isotopes like carbon-14. Thanks to the natural solar system and the atmospheric layers around our planet that these rays don’t enter with their original composition on earth.
We will discuss their effect on quantum computing a bit later. But firstly, we will understand its general behaviour on electronics. These rays are very energetic. They also have a high penetrating power. Electronic integrated circuits are very sensitive and sophisticated in nature. These rays can easily affect their functionality. Especially the electronic memory devices are vulnerable. Processing also gets damaged because of these rays. There are two types of problems being caused due to cosmic rays.
- The First one is at a high altitude. When satellites go to high altitudes, they have face portions of cosmic. The circuits get damaged because of it.
- The Second problem is, when we reduce the size of the electronic circuits while increasing their processing powers, cosmic are induced. It is estimated that 256MB of RAM can induce 1 cosmic ray per month. This amount will increase when we use quantum computers.
Cosmic rays are the biggest threat to quantum computing. Other than their cost and colling system, this threat seems to be uncontrollable. It is assumed that quantum computer needs to redesign to overcome this problem.
- Scientists have proved that quantum computers emit background radiations which can severely damage the operations of superconducting quantum bits. There are researches going on this matter.
- Some have suggested redesigning the structure of quantum computers. And some experts like McDermott suggested overcoming this problem by a combination of shielding and minor redesigning. Cosmic can alter the silicon level and hence the programming of the system. This is one of the reasons when the developers come across irrelevant problems. Those types of problems is not part of any malware. In fact, cosmic induced and interfere in it.
There are serious considerations required for the remedy of this issue. Because in coming days when quantum computing will apply to aerodynamics and biological industries, we can face severe losses. Cosmic rays are big threats to the huge memory system of titans of the digital world. A simple flux of these rays can damage all the electromagnetic stored data. There are suggestions to bury these computers under a heavy coating of lead. Which can shield them adequately.
How to get best assignment helps for quantum and cosmic? Cosmic can damage quantum computing in a very bad manner. Special measurements are required for its remedy. Scientists are working on redesigning and shielding these computers to protect them from rays.
Secondly, the dual nature of an atom. By small, it means at atomic and subatomic levels. The idea came after the theories of Max Planck and Albert Einstein. Now quantum computing uses this idea like dual nature of atom that intruded dual nature of input for a computer.