There are two types of fetal growth restriction that can affect a baby: symmetrical FGR, in which the baby’s head and body are both of the same sizes; and asymmetrical FGR, in which the baby’s head and brain are of normal size, but the rest of the body is small. Read more…
Babies are sometimes referred to as small for gestational age (SGA) or tiny for dates. Both of these terms are used interchangeably (SFD). The vast majority of infants that are born significantly smaller than anticipated will be healthy. However, up to ten percent of pregnancies will be affected by FGR, and these pregnancies will require careful monitoring for the duration of the pregnancy. Under certain circumstances, it is possible that you will need to give birth sooner than you had anticipated.
What is FGR?
A baby is said to have fetal growth restriction (FGR) if he or she isn’t developing inside the mother’s womb at the rate that’s considered normal. A weighted estimate that falls below the 10th percentile for gestational age is the official definition of this condition (i.e., the stage of the pregnancy). It is possible to diagnose the problem in an infant who is noticeably smaller than their peers.
There are two types of fetal growth restriction that can affect a baby: symmetrical FGR, in which the baby’s head and body are both of the same sizes; and asymmetrical FGR, in which the baby’s head and brain are of normal size, but the rest of the body is small.
Because infants affected by FGR are often smaller even while still developing in the womb, they typically have a lower birth weight as well.
FGR may cause:
- Birth at an unnaturally early age with a low birth weight
- Having difficulty coping with the demands of giving birth vaginally.
- Reduced availability of oxygen
- Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)
- Low ability to fight off infections
- Low scores on the Apgar test (used immediately after birth to evaluate a newborn’s physical state and determine whether or not it needs additional medical treatment)
- Meconium aspiration occurs when the baby inhales its own feces that were passed when it was still in the uterus. The infant’s respiration may become problematic as a result of this.
- Difficulty in maintaining proper body temperature.
- a red blood cell count that is exceptionally high.
- In the most extreme circumstances, FGR might result in the stillbirth of the baby. Long-term growth difficulties may also result.
FGR is sometimes unavoidable. A healthy lifestyle reduces risks.
Reasons why your infant could be less developed than usual
There are many reasons why your infant could be on the smaller side, including the following:
- Your placenta isn’t providing them with what they need to grow; they have a health ailment that prevents them from growing; the lack of nutritious food in your diet is preventing them from growing.
- Your smoking can harm your child’s development. You risk pre-eclampsia.
- Fetal growth limitation is not present in every infant born prematurely. Some babies are born with naturally low birth weights, while others make up for lost time and develop substantially later in pregnancy. The vast majority of newborn infants are healthy, and they go on to develop into healthy youngsters.
Reasons Behind FGR
There are numerous potential causes of FGR. Placenta problems are prevalent. Placenta connects mother and fetus. It supplies the developing baby with oxygen and nutrition while also allowing the developing infant to expel waste materials.
This syndrome can also arise as a consequence of particular health issues affecting the mother, such as the following examples:
- Advanced Diabetes Insipidus
- Heart disease or high blood pressure are examples.
- Infections including rubella, CMV, toxoplasmosis, and syphilis are examples of these.
- Kidney or lungs related diseases.
- A malnourished state of anemia.
- Sickle cell anemia.
- Autoimmune disease.
- Smoking, consuming alcohol, or taking drugs.
- Other potential causes of birth malformations in the fetus include genetic abnormalities in the baby, multiple pregnancies (twins, triplets, or more), or living at an altitude that is higher than 5,000 feet.
How to find if the child’s growth Is totally normal
If you do not have any risk factors for FGR identified in the early stages of your pregnancy, your midwife will begin measuring your bump at 24 weeks, during your routine antenatal appointments, to ensure that your baby is developing normally and to ensure that you are not experiencing any complications related to your pregnancy. This is a straightforward test that only It requires a tape measure. They will take your measurements starting at the top of your uterus (womb) and ending at your pubic bone. After that, the measurement needs to be recorded on a growth chart that is kept with your own maternity record. Depending on this measurement, your midwife may refer you for an ultrasound within 72 hours. This doesn’t mean something’s wrong. The scan is simply a more accurate method for determining how much the baby has grown.
Instead of using a tape measure to track the growth of your baby, ultrasound scans will be used if you have any of the risk factors for fetal growth restriction (FGR).
You may also have an ultrasound to monitor placental blood flow. This depends on your health and pregnancy (this is known as the uterine artery Doppler). Standard practice is to measure at 20 to 24 weeks. It is the factor that will decide how frequently you will be required to get ultrasound scans throughout your pregnancy.
Will having FGR have an effect on the way I give birth?
If there are no other issues, the vast majority of pregnant women who want to give birth vaginally will have the opportunity to do so. However, it is highly likely that your doctor will recommend that you give birth as soon as possible. Depending on how your baby is doing, this could be as little as one week earlier than the day that you thought you would give birth, or it could be several weeks sooner. It’s possible that some kids are too small to go through labor and have a vaginal delivery; if this is the case, your doctor may recommend that you have a cesarean section instead. Your healthcare expert will discuss with you what they believe to be in your best interest.
It is possible that you will be given the recommendation to give birth in a hospital that has a specialized infant unit (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit or NICU). This is due to the fact that your infant may require additional care, particularly if they were delivered preterm and are very young (prematurely). The neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is not mandatory for all very young infants.
There is a condition called fetal growth restriction that affects some infants who are not developing normally. This indicates that they are underweight and smaller than they ought to be for the stage of pregnancy that they are in. If someone faces any issue of this kind, then she should consult with the gynecologist in Lahore as soon as possible. The best way to do so is to call the health experts through Marham.
Is it possible for maternal stress to cause IUGR?
An excessive amount of maternal stress has been linked to intrauterine fetal growth restriction (also known as IUGR or FGR). This condition is characterized as a weight that is below the 10th percentile.